Legal systems and wind energy: a comparative perspective

Wind energy as a renewable energy source attracts considerable interest in the climate change debate. The development of wind energy, however, faces a number of legal or regulatory challenges. This book provides an insight into the legal frameworks of selected countries – Denmark, New Zealand, Nor... Ausführliche Beschreibung

1. Person: Anker, Helle Tegner [Hrsg.]
Weitere Personen: Olsen, Birgitte Egelund [Hrsg.]; Ronne, Anita [Hrsg.]
Format: Buch
Sprache: English
Veröffentlicht: Austin, Tex. [u.a.] Wolters Kluwer 2009
Beschreibung: 357 S.
Serien: Energy and environmental law & policy series ; 2
Online Zugang: Inhaltsverzeichnis
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520 |a Wind energy as a renewable energy source attracts considerable interest in the climate change debate. The development of wind energy, however, faces a number of legal or regulatory challenges. This book provides an insight into the legal frameworks of selected countries – Denmark, New Zealand, Norway and the United States – relevant to the development of wind energy. It explores the legal traditions and systems as well as the more specific environmental and energy legislation. The book has been elaborated in an educational setting, but it is relevant to a much broader audience, including legislators, public and private decision-makers and other stakeholders involved in wind energy issues. 
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700 1 |a Ronne, Anita  |e [Hrsg.] 
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992 |a KLUWER LAW INTERNATIONAL LEGAL SYSTEMS AND WIND ENERGY A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE HELLE TEGNE& R ANKERANITA , ROENNBIRGITTE (EDS.E EGELUN) D OLSEN DJOEF PUBLISHIN 200 G 8 COPENHAGEN WOLTERS KLUWER LAW & BUSINESS AUSTIN BOSTON CHICAGO NEW YORK THE NETHERLANDS TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE 11 CONTRIBUTORS 13 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 17 BY HELLE TEGNER ANKER, BIRGITTE EGELUND OLSEN & ANITA ROENNE 1. BACKGROUND 17 2. A COMPARATIVE APPROACH 18 3. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY LAW 19 4. THE STRUCTURE 20 CHAPTER 2. CIVIL LAW AND COMMON LAW SYSTEMS 25 BY JULIAN JUERGENSMEYER & ELLEN MARGRETHE BASSE 1. INTRODUCTION 25 2. THE CIVIL AND COMMON LAW TRADITIONS 26 2.1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CIVIL LAW SYSTEM 27 2.2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE COMMON LAW SYSTEM 29 3. CIVIL LAW AND COMMON LAW SYSTEMS - COMPARED AND CONTRASTED 30 3.1. SOURCES OF LAW 31 3.2. CODES 34 CHAPTER 3. INTERNATIONAL AND EU LEGAL SYSTEMS 37 1. THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL SYSTEM - BY SANFORD GAINES 37 1.1. LEGAL SOURCES AND MAIN PRINCIPLES 37 1.2. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNATIONAL LAW AND NATIONAL LAW 39 1.3. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 39 2. THE EU LEGAL SYSTEM BY BIRGITTE EGELUND OLSEN 44 2.1. THE EU LEGAL TRADITION 45 2.2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 49 2.3. LEGAL INSTITUTIONS AND LAW MAKING 51 2.4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EU LAW AND INTERNATIONAL LAW 54 2.5. THE BALANCE OF POWERS BETWEEN THE EU AND THE MEMBER STATES 56 2.6. THE ROLE OF THE COURT 57 2.7. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 58 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 4. NATIONAL LEGAL SYSTEMS 1. THE DANISH LEGAL SYSTEM - BY ELLEN MARGRETHE BASSE & JOERGEN DALBERG-LARSEN 1.1. THE SCANDINAVIAN LEGAL TRADITION 1.2. THE DANISH LEGAL TRADITION 1.3. THE ROLE OF THE COURTS 1.4. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY LAW 2. THE UNITED STATES LEGAL SYSTEM - BY JULIAN JUERGENSMEYER & SANFORD GAINES 1.5. COMMENTARY FROM A NORWEGIAN POINT OF VIEW - BY HANS CHRISTIAN BUGGE 2.1. THE US LEGAL TRADITION 2.2. 
992 |a HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 2.3. LEGAL INSTITUTIONS AND LAW MAKING 2.4. THE ROLE OF THE COURTS 2.5. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 2.6. COMMENTARY FROM A NEW ZEALAND POINT OF VIEW - BY BARRY BARTON & DAVID GRINLINTON CHAPTER 5. JURISDICTION, FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND THE MARKET BY HELLE TEGNER ANKER, SANFORD GAINES & BIRGITTE EGELUND OLSEN 1. INTRODUCTION 61 61 61 67 71 71 73 75 75 80 81 87 86 90 93 93 94 94 95 102 97 102 107 113 110 115 115 117 119 2. JURISDICTIONAL ISSUES 2.1. INTERNATIONAL - NATIONAL LEVEL 2.2. FEDERAL - STATE LEVEL 2.3. NATIONAL - REGIONAL - LOCAL LEVEL 3. PROTECTION OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS 3.1. PRIVATE PROPERTY RIGHTS 3.2. RIGHT TO A GOOD ENVIRONMENT? 3.3. RIGHT TO INFORMATION AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 4. MARKET CONDITIONS 3.4. ACCESS TO JUSTICE 4.1. NON-DISCRIMINATION 4.2. ANTITRUST AND COMPETITION RULES 4.3. SUBSIDIES AND STATE AID CHAPTER 6. PLANNING LAW 123 1. INTRODUCTION - BY HELLE TEGNER ANKER AND BIRGITTE EGELUND OLSEN ... 123 2. INTERNATIONAL PLANNING LAW - BY HELLE TEGNER ANKER 124 6 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3. EU PLANNING LAW - BY HELLE TEGNER ANKER AND BIRGITTE EGELUND OLSEN 125 4. DANISH PLANNING LAW - BY HELLE TEGNER ANKER 127 4.1 LAND USE PLANNING 128 4.2 COASTAL AND MARINE PLANNING 130 4.3 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND APPEALS 131 5. NORWEGIAN PLANNING LAW - BY HANS CHRISTIAN BUGGE 131 5.1. COUNTY PLANS 133 5.2. LAND USE PLANS AT THE MUNICIPAL LEVEL 133 5.3. COASTAL OR MARINE PLANNING 135 5.4. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION, APPEALS AND OBJECTIONS 136 6. US FEDERAL AND STATE PLANNING LAW - BY JULIAN JUERGENSMEYER 137 6.1 STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT LAND USE PLANS 137 6.2. COASTAL ZONE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT 140 6.3. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND APPEALS 144 7. NEW ZEALAND PLANNING LAW - BY DAVID GRINLINTON 145 7.1. THE RMA - BACKGROUND AND REGULATORY STRUCTURE 145 7.2. APPLYING THE REGULATORY STRUCTURE TO WIND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 148 7.3. RMA RESOURCE (PLANNING) CONSENTS AND DECISION-MAKING 149 7.4. APPLYING THE RMA 
992 |a DECISION-MAKING PROCESS TO WIND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 151 7.5. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND APPEALS 152 7.6. ENFORCEMENT MECHANISMS AND CRIMINAL OFFENCES 153 CHAPTER 7. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES 155 1. INTRODUCTION - BY HELLE TEGNER ANKER 155 2. INTERNATIONAL LAW ON EIA AND SEA 155 3. EU LAW ON EIA AND SEA - BY HELLE TEGNER ANKER AND BIRGITTE EGELUND OLSEN 158 3.1. THE EIA DIRECTIVE 159 3.2. THE SEA DIRECTIVE 160 4. THE DANISH EIA AND SEA RULES - BY HELLE TEGNER ANKER 161 4.1. EIA 161 4.2. SEA 163 5. NORWEGIAN EIA AND SEA RULES - BY HANS CHRISTIAN BUGGE 163 6. US FEDERAL AND STATE EIA AND SEA RULES - BY SANFORD GAINES 166 6.1. FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT - NEPA 166 6.2. STATE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 168 7 TABLE OF CONTENTS 7. NEW ZEALAND'S EIA AND SEA RULES - BY DAVID GRINLINTON 169 7.1. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS (AEE) 170 7.2. STRATEGIE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT (SEA) 171 7.3. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT (ESA) 172 CHAPTER 8. NATURE PROTECTION LAW 173 1. INTRODUCTION - BY HELLE TEGNER ANKER 173 2. INTERNATIONAL NATURE PROTECTION LAW 173 3. EU NATURE PROTECTION LAW 177 3.1. PROTECTION OF HABITATS - NATURA 2000 178 3.2. EU SPECIES PROTECTION 180 4. DANISH NATURE PROTECTION LAW 182 4.1. PROTECTION OF HABITATS ETC 182 4.2. PROTECTION OF SPECIES 185 5. NORWEGIAN NATURE PROTECTION LAW - BY HANS CHRISTIAN BUGGE 185 5.1. THE NATURE CONSERVATION ACT 186 5.2. SPECIES PROTECTION 188 6. US FEDERAL AND STATE NATURE PROTECTION LAW - BY JULIAN JUERGENSMEYER 189 6.1. THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT 189 6.2. WETLANDS 193 7. NEW ZEALAND NATURE PROTECTION LAW - BY DAVID GRINLINTON 201 7.1. THE ROLE OF THE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACT 1991 IN NATURE PROTECTION 201 7.2. GENERAL LEGISLATION PROTECTING HABITATS 202 7.3. SPECIES PROTECTION 204 CHAPTER 9. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION LAW 207 1. INTRODUCTION - BY BENT OLE GRAM MORTENSEN 207 2. INTERNATIONAL RULES ON NOISE AND RELATED ISSUES 208 3. 
992 |a EU RULES ON NOISE AND RELATED ISSUES 209 3.1. EU NOISE RULES FOR OUTDOOR EQUIPMENT 210 3.2. EIA DIRECTIVE 210 3.3. DIRECTIVE RELATING TO THE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE 211 4. DANISH RULES ON NOISE AND RELATED ISSUES 211 4.1. PRIVATE LAW AND PUBLIC LAW 212 4.2. NOISE STANDARDS 215 4.3. REFLECTION (LIGHT) 216 4.4. SHADOWS AND VISUAL IMPACT 217 8 TABLE OF CONTENTS 4.5. VIBRATION 217 5. NORWEGIAN RULES ON NOISE AND RELATED ISSUES - BY HANS CHRISTIAN BUGGE 218 5.1. PRIVATE LAW AND PUBLIC LAW 218 5.2. INTEGRATED POLLUTION CONTROL 219 5.3. NOISE 221 5.4. COMPENSATION 222 6. US RULES ON NOISE AND RELATED ISSUES - BY MARGARET ROSSO GROSSMAN 222 6.1. NUISANCE 223 6.2. NOISE AND VIBRATION 226 6.3. SHADOWS AND VISUAL EFFECTS 230 7. NEW ZEALAND RULES ON NOISE AND RELATED ISSUES - BY DAVID GRINLINTON 232 7.1. COMMON LAW REMEDIES 232 7.2. REGULATION OF NOISE AND VIBRATION 234 7.3. LIGHT REFLECTION, SHADOWS AND VISUAL EFFECTS 236 CHAPTER 10. ENERGY LAW & REGULATION OF WIND ENERGY 239 1. INTRODUCTION - BY ANITA ROENNE 239 1.1. ENERGY LAW - BY BARRY BARTON 241 1.2. WIND ENERGY LAW - BY ANITA ROENNE 244 2. INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF WIND TURBINES 246 2.1. INTRODUCTION 246 2.2. THE UN CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA 247 2.3. THE CLIMATE CHANGE CONVENTION AND THE KYOTO PROTOCOL 248 2.4. THE ENERGY CHARTER TREATY 249 3. EU REGULATION OF WIND TURBINES 250 3.1. THE EC TREATY 250 3.2. POLICY DEVELOPMENT 252 3.3. INSTRUMENTS TO PROMOTE WIND ENERGY 253 4. DANISH REGULATION OF WIND TURBINES 255 4.1. POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND EXPANSION OF WIND ENERGY 255 4.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF WIND TURBINES 260 4.3. REGULATION OF WIND TURBINES OFFSHORE 262 4.4. MARKET ACCESS AND CONNECTION TO NETWORKS 265 4.5. PRICE REGULATION AND SUBSIDIES 266 4.6. PUBLIC AUTHORITIES AND SYSTEM OPERATORS 267 5. NORWEGIAN REGULATION OF WIND TURBINES - BY ULF HAMMER 269 5.1. POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND EXPANSION OF WIND ENERGY 269 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS 5.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF WIND TURBINES 
992 |a 5.3. MARKET ACCESS AND CONNECTION TO NETWORKS 5.4. PRICE REGULATION AND SUBSIDIES 5.5. PUBLIC AUTHORITIES AND SYSTEM OPERATORS 6. US REGULATION OF WIND TURBINES -BY SANFORD GAINES 6.1. POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND EXPANSION OF WIND ENERGY 6.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF WIND TURBINES 6.3. MARKET ACCESS AND CONNECTION TO NETWORKS 6.4. PRICE REGULATION AND SUBSIDIES 6.5. PUBLIC AUTHORITIES AND SYSTEM OPERATORS 7. NEW ZEALAND REGULATION OF WIND TURBINES - BY BARRY BARTON 7.1. POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND EXPANSION OF WIND ENERGY 7.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF WIND TURBINES 7.3. MARKET ACCESS AND CONNECTION TO NETWORKS 7.4. PRICE REGULATION AND SUBSIDIES 7.5. PUBLIC AUTHORITIES AND SYSTEM OPERATORS CHAPTER 11. COMPARISONS AND CONCLUSIONS BY HELLE TEGNER ANKER, BIRGITTE EGELUND OLSEN & ANITA ROENNE 1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF WIND ENERGY 272 270 274 275 275 275 281 277 282 283 284 284 288 287 290 291 293 293 295 296 297 302 299 303 305 309 307 313 2. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR WIND ENERGY - A COMPARISON 2.1. THE LEGAL TRADITIONS 2.2. JURISDICTIONAL ISSUES 2.3. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS 2.5. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 2.4. PLANNING LAW 2.7. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ISSUES 2.6. NATURE PROTECTION ISSUES 3. CONCLUSIONS 2.8. ENERGY LAW ISSUES APPENDIX I DEVELOPING A WIND FARM - CASE SCENARIOS AND APPENDIX II WINQUESTIOND POWES R DEVELOPMENT IN A SMALL STATE: THE CASE 317 APPENDIX III CASOF MAINE LAW E - BY DONALD N. ZILLMAN 33324 0 APPENDIX IV COUNTRY FACTS 341 BIBLIOGRAPHY 347 10 

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