The constitution of private governance: product standards in the regulation of integrating markets

The book offers the first systematic treatment of European, American and international 'standards law' in the English language.In quantity and importance, private standards are rapidly taking over the role of public norms in the international and national regulation of product safety. This book prov... Ausführliche Beschreibung

1. Person: Schepel, Harm
Format: Buch
Sprache: English
Veröffentlicht: Oxford [u.a.] Hart 2005
Beschreibung: XXXVII, 460 S.
Serien: International studies in the theory of private law ; 4
Schlagworte (SWD): Europäische Union
USA
Produktsicherheit
Standardisierung
Rechtsvereinheitlichung
Schlagworte (SH): Customary law
Globalization
Product safety > Law and legislation
Product safety > Standards
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Anmerkung: Table of cases S. [XXIII] - XXXVII
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520 |a The book offers the first systematic treatment of European, American and international 'standards law' in the English language.In quantity and importance, private standards are rapidly taking over the role of public norms in the international and national regulation of product safety. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the rise, role and status of these private product safety standards in the legal regulation of integrating markets. In international and regional trade law as in European and American constitutional and administrative law, tort law and antitrust law, the book analyses the ways in which legal systems can and do recognise private norms as 'law.' This sociological question of law's recognition of private governance is indissolubly connected with a normative question of democratic theory: can law recognize legal validity and democratic legitimacy outside the constitution, without constitutional political institutions and beyond the nation state? Or: can law 'constitute' private transnational governance? The book offers the first systematic treatment of European, American and international 'standards law' in the English language, and makes a significant contribution to the study of the processes of globalization and privatization in social and legal theory. For the thesis on which this book was based Harm Schepel was awarded the first EUI Alumni Prize for the "best interdisciplinary and/or comparative thesis on European issues" written at the EUI in recent years. 
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992 |a IMAGE 1 THE CONSTITUTION OF PRIVATE GOVERNANCE PRODUCT STANDARDS IN THE REGULATION OF INTEGRATING MARKETS HARM SCHEPEL KENT LAW SCHOOL * H A R T- PUBLISHING OXFORD AND PORTLAND, OREGON 2005 IMAGE 2 CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABBREVIATIONS TABLE OFCASES INTRODUCTION 1. BORDERS AND FRAMES 2. MARKETS, STATES AND ASSOCIATIONS 2.1. MARKETS, HIERARCHIES, AND STANDARDISATION 2.2. MARKETS, STATES, AND STANDARDISATION 2.3. CUSTOM, TECHNOLOGY, AND STANDARDISATION 3. THE BOOK 3.1. FIELD 3.2. METHOD 3.3. STRUCTURE XV XVII XXIII 1 2 3 4 5 7 7 8 9 1 THE RISE OF PRIVATE GOVERNANCE: FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIATION AND ECONOMIC GLOBALISATION 1. INTRODUCTION 11 2. DIFFERENTIATION AND GLOBALISATION: LOGICS OF ASSOCIATIVE GOVERNANCE 12 2.1. LOGICS OF ASSOCIATIVE GOVERNANCE IN DURKHEIM 12 2.2. LOGICS OF ASSOCIATIVE GOVERNANCE IN LUHMANN AND HABERMAS 15 3. FROM GOVERNMENT TO GOVERNANCE 19 3.1. COLLAPSING STATE AND SOCIETY 19 3.2. GLOBALISATION AND GOVERNANCE 21 3.3. GOVERNANCE, KNOWLEDGE AND RISK 23 4. THE LEGAL REGULATION OF PRIVATE GOVERNANCE 28 4.1. LAW AND GOVERNANCE 28 4.2. THE REGULATION OF SELF-REGULATION 30 4.3. LEGAL PLURALISM 32 5. CONCLUSION 35 2 THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY: MARKET INTEGRATION AND PRIVATE TRANSNATIONALISM 1. INTRODUCTION 37 2. MEMBER STATES, STANDARDS AND THE REACH OF NEGATIVE INTEGRATION 39 IMAGE 3 X CONTENTS 2.1. INTEGRATION, DEREGULATION AND ARTICLE 28 EC 39 2.2. EXTENDING THE REACH OF ARTICLE 28 42 3. MEMBER STATES, STANDARDS AND THE REACH OF POSITIVE INTEGRATION 50 3.1. THE INFORMATION DIRECTIVE 51 3.1.1. TECHNICAL REGULATIONS 52 3.1.2. STANDARDS 58 4. EMBEDDING STANDARDS IN EUROPEAN LAW 63 4.1 THE NEW APPROACH 63 4.2. THE GREEN PAPER 68 5. EMBEDDING STANDARDISATION IN EUROPEAN GOVERNANCE 70 5.1. SUBSIDIARITY AND GOVERNANCE 70 5.2. GENERAL PRODUCT SAFETY 73 6. CONCLUSION 75 3 THE UNITED STATES: DEREGULATION AND LEGALISATION 1. INTRODUCTION 77 2. INFORMAL RULEMAKING 79 3. NEGOTIATED RULEMAKING 83 4. RULEMAKING BY RELIANCE ON PRIVATE STANDARDS 87 
992 |a 4.1. GENERAL FEDERAL STANDARDS POLICY 87 4.2. MANUFACTURED HOUSING STANDARDS 90 4.3. THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION 93 4.4. THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 97 5. CONCLUSION 100 4 STANDARDS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION 1. INTRODUCTION 101 2. 'EUROPEAN' STANDARDS 101 2.1. THE EUROPEAN STANDARDISATION COMMITTEE (CEN) 101 2.2. PROCEDURES FOR STANDARDISATION 104 3. THE EUROPEANISATION OF STANDARDISATION 107 4. 'NATIONAL' STANDARDS 111 5. GERMANY 112 5.1. THE DEUTSCHE INSTITUT FUER NORMUNG 112 5.2. PROCEDURES FOR STANDARDISATION 114 5.3. PUBLIC RECOGNITION OF STANDARDISATION 117 5.4. LEGAL RECOGNITION OF STANDARDISATION 118 6. UNITED KINGDOM 122 6.1. THE BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE 122 6.2. PROCEDURES FOR STANDARDISATION 123 6.3. PUBLIC RECOGNITION OF STANDARDISATION 126 6.4. LEGAL RECOGNITION OF STANDARDISATION 128 7. FRANCE 130 7.1. THE ASSOCIATION FRANGAISE DE NORMALISATION 130 IMAGE 4 CONTENTS XI 7.2. PROCEDURES FOR STANDARDISATION 131 7.3. PUBLIC CONTROL OVER STANDARDISATION 132 8. SPAIN 134 9. ITALY 137 10. THE NETHERLANDS 139 11. IRELAND 141 12. CONCLUSION 143 STANDARDS AND CODES IN THE UNITED STATES 1. INTRODUCTION 145 2. THE PRIVATE STANDARDISATION SYSTEM 145 3. THE BATTLE OF THE BUILDING CODES 152 3.1. THE BATTLES OF THE MODEL CODES 155 3.1.1. FIRE CODES 155 3.1.2. PLUMBING AND MECHANICAL CODES 156 3.1.3. FUEL GAS CODES 158 3.1.4. ELECTRICAL CODES 159 3.1.5. BUILDING CODES 160 3.2. BETWEEN STANDARDS, CODES AND LAW 163 3.3. STATE CODES 166 3.4. BETWEEN ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS AND PRIVATE CONSENSUS 168 3.5. THE BATTLES OF STATE CODES 172 4. CONCLUSION 176 INTERNATIONAL HARMONISATION OF STANDARDS 1. INTRODUCTION 177 2. STANDARDS AND INTERNATIONAL FREE TRADE 178 2.1. TRANSNATIONAL PRIVATE GOVERNANCE IN THE WTO 178 2.1.1. STANDARDS UNDER THE TBT AGREEMENT 179 2.1.2. STANDARDS UNDER THE SPS AGREEMENT 181 2.1.3. THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANISATION 183 2.1.4. DEFINING AN 'INTERNATIONAL STANDARD' 185 
992 |a 2.2. DIAGONAL ISSUES CONCERNING INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS 194 2.2.1. PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE OF PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS 194 2.2.2. PUBLIC INFLUENCE IN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDISATION 197 2.3. CO-ORDINATING PUBLIC AND PRIVATE RULEMAKING 200 2.3.1. PUBLIC PROCUREMENT 200 2.3.2. PRESSURE EQUIPMENT 201 2.3.3. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 204 3. STANDARDS AND FREE TRADE IN THE AMERICAS 209 3.1 THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT 209 3.1.1. CANADA 210 IMAGE 5 XII CONTENTS 3.1.2. MEXICO 211 3.1.3. HARMONISATION OF STANDARDS 214 3.2. SOUTH- AND LATIN AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS 215 3.2.1. THE ANDEAN COMMUNITY 216 3.3.2. MERCOSUR 217 3.3. FREE TRADE OF THE AMERICAS 219 3.3.1. THE PAN-AMERICAN STANDARDS COMMISSION 219 3.3.2. THE DRAFT FREE TRADE OF THE AMERICAS AGREEMENT 220 4. CONCLUSION 221 7 PRIVATE REGULATION IN EUROPEAN PUBLIC LAW 1. INTRODUCTION 225 2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE NEW APPROACH 227 2.1. EXPLICIT EXCEPTIONS 228 2.1.1. AUTONOMY OF ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS 228 2.1.2. VOLUNTARY APPLICATION OF HARMONISED STANDARDS 231 2.1.3. STANDARDS SETBY PRIVATE BODIES 232 2.2. INHERENT EXCEPTIONS 233 3. INSTRUMENTS OF REGULATION ON COMMUNITY LEVEL 234 3.1. VERIFYING COMPATIBILITY WITH LEGAL REQUIREMENTS 235 3.1.1. PUBLICATION OF STANDARDS' REFERENCES BY THE COMMISSION 235 3.1.2. THE SAFEGUARD PROCEDURE 235 3.1.3. COMMISSION MANDATES 239 3.1.4. GUIDELINES FOR CO-OPERATION 240 3.1.5. CEN'CONSULTANTS' 241 3.2. PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS ON PRIVATE STANDARD-SETTING 242 3.2.1. RECOGNITION OF EUROPEAN STANDARDS BODIES 242 3.2.2. PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN STANDARDS WORK 243 3.2.3. VOTING ARRANGEMENTS 243 3.2.4. INVOLVEMENT OF INTERESTED CIRCLES 244 3.3. CONCLUSION 246 4. PROPOSAIS FOR THE JURIDIFICATION OF STANDARDISATION 246 5. JUDICIAL REVIEW OF THE LEGAL RECEPTION OF STANDARDS 249 6. DELEGATION REVISITED 254 7. CONCLUSION 257 8 PRIVATE REGULATION IN AMERICAN PUBLIC LAW 1. INTRODUCTION 259 
992 |a 2. THE NONDELEGATION DOCTRINE IN THE UNITED STATES: THE DEFINITION OF 'LAWMAKING' 261 3. ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AS CONSTITUTIONAL LAW: THE FEDERAL NONDELEGATION DOCTRINE 266 3.1. ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND THE NONDELEGATION DOCTRINE 268 IMAGE 6 CONTENTS XIII 3.2. ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR POLITICAL MANDATE 269 3.3. EXPERTISE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR POLITICAL MANDATE 273 4. A HARD LOOK AT THE ADMINISTRATIVE ADOPTION OF STANDARDS 276 4.1. LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS FOR AGENCY ADOPTION OF STANDARDS 277 4.2. JUDICIAL SCRUTINY OF AGENCY ADOPTION OF STANDARDS 279 5. CONCLUSION 283 9 POLITICS AND THE ECONOMY: LINKING INSTITUTIONS IN COMPETITION LAW 1. INTRODUCTION 285 2. CERTIFICATION AND ABUSE: THE UNITED STATES 287 3. CERTIFICATION AND ABUSE: THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY 289 4. ANTITRUST IMMUNITY: THE UNITED STATES 293 4.1. INTRODUCTION 293 4.2. STANDARDS BODIES AS POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS 299 4.3. FROM 'REASONABLE' RESTRAINTS TO LEGITIMATE GOVERNANCE 303 4.4. ANTITRUST AS PRIVATE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW 305 5. ANTITRUST IMMUNITY: THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY 309 5.1. INTRODUCTION 309 5.2. STANDARDS BODIES AS POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS 313 5.3. FROM 'REASONABLE' RESTRAINTS TO LEGITIMATE GOVERNANCE 317 5.4. ANTITRUST AS PRIVATE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW 320 6. CONCLUSION 337 10 CUSTOM, SCIENCE AND LAW: LINKING INSTITUTIONS IN TORT 1. INTRODUCTION 339 2. NEGLIGENCE AND THE JURIDIFICATION OF CUSTOM 340 2.1. NON-COMPLIANCE WITH STANDARDS AND BREACH OF LEGAL REQUIREMENT OF DUE CARE 343 2.2. COMPLIANCE WITH STANDARDS AND FULFILLING THE LEGAL REQUIREMENT OF DUE CARE 345 3. PRODUCT LIABILITY LAW 347 3.1. DEFECTIVENESS: THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY 348 3.2. DEFECTIVENESS: THE UNITED STATES 350 3.3. THE MANDATORY STANDARDS DEFENCE: THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY 361 3.4. THE MANDATORY STANDARDS DEFENCE: THE UNITED STATES 363 3.4.1. THE REGULATORY COMPLIANCE DEFENCE 363 3.4.2. FEDERAL PRE-EMPTION AS A MANDATORY STANDARDS DEFENCE 366 
992 |a 3.5. THE STATE OF THE ART DEFENCE: THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY 374 3.6. THE STATE OF THE ART DEFENCE: THE UNITED STATES 376 3.6.1. BETWEEN CUSTOM AND THE FRONTIERS OF SCIENCE 376 3.6.2. STANDARDS BODIES AND THE CONSTITUTION OF 'SCIENTIFIC' EVIDENCE 379 IMAGE 7 XIV CONTENTS 4. LIABILITY FOR STANDARDS BODIES 384 4.1. THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY 384 4.2. THE UNITED STATES 387 4.2.1. STRICT LIABILITY 387 4.2.2. GOOD SAMARITAN LIABILITY 389 5. CONCLUSION 400 CONCLUSION THE CONSTITUTION OF PRIVATE GOVERNANCE 1. INTRODUCTION 403 2. GLOBAL LAW WITHOUT A STATE 404 2.1. THE MAKINGOF GLOBAL LAW 404 2.2. STRATEGIES OF DENIAL 406 3. THE LEGITIMACY OF GLOBAL PRIVATE GOVERNANCE 406 3.1. THE LEGITIMACY OF 'PUBLIC' GOVERNANCE 408 3.2. THE LEGITIMACY OF 'PRIVATE' GOVERNANCE 410 4. THE CONSTITUTION OF GLOBAL PRIVATE GOVERNANCE 412 4.1. REPRESENTATION AND DELIBERATION 412 4.2. CENTRE AND PERIPHERY 413 REFERENCES 415 INDEX 451 

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