Innovation and industry evolution

It once took two decades to replace one-third of the Fortune 500; now a subset of new firms are challenging and displacing this elite group at a breathtaking rate, while armies of startups come and go within just a few years. Most new jobs are, in fact, coming from small firms, reversing the trend o... Ausführliche Beschreibung

1. Person: Audretsch, David B.
Format: Buch
Sprache: English
Veröffentlicht: Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.] MIT Press 1995
Beschreibung: XVI, 205 S. : graph. Darst.
Schlagworte (STW): Innovation
Unternehmensgründung
Unternehmenswachstum
Unternehmenserfolg
Theorie
USA
Schlagworte (SH): Economic development
New business enterprises
Technological innovations > Economic aspects
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Anmerkung: Literaturverz. S. [187]-202
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260 |a Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.]  |b MIT Press  |c 1995 
300 |a XVI, 205 S. : graph. Darst. 
520 |a It once took two decades to replace one-third of the Fortune 500; now a subset of new firms are challenging and displacing this elite group at a breathtaking rate, while armies of startups come and go within just a few years. Most new jobs are, in fact, coming from small firms, reversing the trend of a century. David Audretsch takes a close look at the U.S. economy in motion, providing a detailed and systematic investigation of the dynamic process by which industries and firms enter into markets, either grow and survive, or disappear. He shapes a clear understanding of the role that small, entrepreneurial firms play in this evolutionary process and in the asymmetric size distribution of firms in the typical industry.Audretsch introduces the large longitudinal database maintained by the U.S. Small Business Administration that is used to identify the startup of new firms and track their performance over time. He then provides different snapshots of the process of industries in motion: why new-firm startup activity varies so greatly across industries; what happens to these firms after they enter the market; the extent to which entrepreneurial firms account for an industry's economic activity and why that measure varies across industries; how small firms compensate for size-related disadvantages; and who exits and why.Audretsch concludes that the structure of industries is characterized by a high degree of fluidity and turbulence, even as the patterns of evolution vary considerably from industry to industry. The dynamic process by which firms and industries evolve over time is shaped by three fundamental factors: technology, scale economies, and demand. Most important, the evidence suggests that it is the differences in the knowledge conditions and technology underlying each specific industry -- key elements in innovation -- that are responsible for the pattern particular to that industry. 
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650 0 |a Economic development 
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650 0 |a Technological innovations  |a Economic aspects 
699 d |a WIR / Wirtschaftstheorie / Mesoökonomie / Zeitliche Dimension / Innovationsökonomie 
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699 d |a WIR / Wirtschaftspolitik / Sektorale Strukturpolitik / Sekundärsektor 
699 e |a WIR / Economic policy / Sectoral structure policy / Secondary sector 
690 |a Betriebliche Innovation 
690 |a Business start-up 
690 |a Neuerrichtung von Unternehmen 
690 |a Jungunternehmen 
690 |a Gründung von Unternehmen 
690 |a Firmengründung 
690 |a Existenzgründung 
690 |a Betriebsgründung 
690 |a New firm formation 
690 |a New firm creation 
690 |a Firm growth 
690 |a Wachstumsunternehmen 
690 |a Wachstum von Unternehmen 
690 |a Theorie des Unternehmenswachstums 
690 |a Expansion von Unternehmen 
690 |a Betriebswachstum 
690 |a Theory of the growth of the firm 
690 |a Corporate expansion 
690 |a Firm performance 
690 |a Unternehmensperformance 
690 |a Performance von Unternehmen 
690 |a Business performance 
690 |a Organizational performance 
690 |a Organisational performance 
690 |a Corporate performance 
690 |a Theory 
690 |a Theoretisches Modell 
690 |a United States 
690 |a Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika 
690 |a Vereinigte Staaten 
690 |a United States of America 
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992 |a CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES IX LIST OF FIGURES XM ACKNOWLEDGMENTS XV 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 MEASUREMENT: THE LONGITUDINAL DATA BASE 13 2.1 INTRODUCTION 13 2.2 THE LONGITUDINAL DATA BASE 14 2.3 FILE EDITING 16 2.4 RELIABILITY COMPARISONS 21 2.5 A NOTE ON MEASURING INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY 27 2.6 CONCLUSIONS 38 3 NEW FIRMS 39 3.1 INTRODUCTION 39 3.2 WHY FIRMS EXIST 41 3.3 THE TRADITIONAL VIEW OF ENTRY 45 3.4 ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION, TRANSACTION COSTS, AND THE PRINCIPAL- AGENT RELATIONSHIP 4 7 3.5 NEW-FIRM STARTUPS OVER TIME AND ACROSS INDUSTRIES 55 3.6 THE MODEL 59 3.7 RESULTS 61 3.8 CONCLUSIONS 62 4 SURVIVAL AND GROWTH 65 4.1 INTRODUCTION 65 4.2 FIRM SELECTION 67 4.3 POST-ENTRY PERFORMANCE OF NEW FIRMS 73 VIII CONTENTS 4.4 FIRM GROWTH AND SURVIVAL 79 4.5 SEMIPARAMETRIC HAZARD DURATION MODEL 85 4.6 CONCLUSIONS 101 5 ENTREPRENEURSHIP 103 5.1 INTRODUCTION 103 5.2 MEASURING ENTREPRENEURSHIP 106 5.3 INNOVATION, SCALE ECONOMIES, AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP 117 5.4 EMPIRICAL RESULTS 118 5.5 CONCLUSIONS 120 6 COMPENSATING STRATEGIES 123 6.1 INTRODUCTION 123 6.2 MINIMUM EFFICIENT SCALE AND SUBOPTIMAL PLANT SHARE 125 6.3 SUBOPTIMAL PLANTS AND COMPENSATING FACTOR DIFFERENTIALS 132 6.4 EMPIRICAL RESULTS FOR THE UNITED STATES 140 6.5 EMPIRICAL RESULTS FOR JAPAN 145 6.6 CONCLUSIONS 147 7 WHO EXITS AND WHY 149 7.1 INTRODUCTION 149 7.2 DISPLACEMENT AND THE REVOLVING DOOR ISO 7.3 MEASUREMENT 157 7.4 THE AGE COHORT OF EXITING FIRMS 160 7.5 CONCLUSIONS 165 8 CONCLUSIONS 167 8.1 MAJOR FINDINGS 167 8.2 BROADER IMPLICATIONS 172 REFERENCES 187 INDEX 203 TABLES TABLE 2.1 THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYMENT (%) FOR U.S. FIRMS AND ESTABLISHMENTS, 1986 TABLE 2.2 A COMPARISON OF EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS AMONG THE SBDB, BLS, AND CENSUS DATA BASES TABLE 2.3 EMPLOYMENT GROWTH RATES(%) ACCORDING TO ESTABLISHMENT SIZE CLASS TABLE 2.4 THE DISTRIBUTION OF FIRMS BY SECTOR FOR THE SBDB (USEEM) AND ENTERPRISE STATISTICS DATA, 1982 TABLE 2.5 DISTRIBUTION OF FIRMS ACCORDING TO EMPLOYMENT SIZE FOR THE ENTERPRISE STATISTICS AND 
992 |a SBDB DATA, 1982 TABLE 2.6 EMPLOYMENT IN ALL ESTABLISHMENTS HAVING FEWER THAN 100 EM- PLOYEES FOR THE SBDB (USEEM), BLS, AND COUNTY BUSINESS PATTERNS TABLE 2.7 DISTRIBUTION OF LARGE- AND SMALL-FIRM INNOVATIONS ACCORDING TO SIGNIFICANCE LEVELS TABLE 2.8 COMPARISON OF INNOVATION DATA WITH R & D AND PATENT MEA- SURES TABLE 2.9 NUMBER OF SIGNIFICANT INNOVATIONS FOR LARGE AND SMALL FIRMS IN THE MOST INNOVATIVE INDUSTRIES, 1982 TABLE 2.10 INNOVATION RATES FOR LARGE AND SMALL FIRMS, BY TWO-DIGIT SIC SECTOR, 1982 TABLE 3.1 NEW-FIRM STARTUPS BY INDUSTRIAL SECTOR TABLE 3.2 REGRESSION RESULTS FOR NEW-FIRM STARTUPS TABLE 4.1 EVOLUTION OF MEAN FIRM SIZE (EMPLOYMENT) ACCORDING TO SUR- VIVAL STATUS OF COHORT X TABLES TABLE 4.2 MEAN FIRM GROWTH RATE (%) OVER TIME ACCORDING TO SURVIVAL STATUS OF COHORT TABLE 4.3 MEAN SIZE AND GROWTH(%) OF 1976 STARTUPS COMPARED IN 1978 AND 1986 ACCORDING TO INDUSTRIAL SECTOR TABLE 4.4 REGRESSIONS OF NEW-FIRM GROWTH AND SURVIVAL IN THE SHORT RUN TABLE 4.5 REGRESSIONS OF NEW-FIRM GROWTH AND SURVIVAL IN THE LONG RUN TABLE 4.6 PLANT STARTUP SIZE AND NUMBERS OF SURVIVING NEW SMALL PLANTS (AND PERCENTAGE SURVIVING) BY SECTOR AND YEAR, 1976-1986 TABLE 4.7 EMPLOYMENT GROWTH RATES(%) IN EXITING PLANTS AND 1986 SUR- VIVORS TABLE 4.8 LIFE TABLE OF ESTABLISHMENTS FOUNDED IN 1976 TABLE 4.9 LIFE TABLE ACCORDING TO TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT TABLE 4.10 SEMI-PARAMETRIC HAZARD DURATION FUNCTION TABLE 4.11 SEMI-PARAMETRIC HAZARD DURATION FUNCTION ACCORDING TO OWNER- SHIP AND TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT TABLE 5.1 THE INDUSTRIES WITH THE GREATEST NUMBER OF 1986 FIRMS FOUNDED SINCE 1982 TABLE 5.2 THE INDUSTRIES WITH THE SMALLEST NUMBER OF 1986 FIRMS FOUNDED SINCE 1982 TABLE 5.3 NUMBER (AND SHARE) OF 1986 FIRMS ACCOUNTED FOR BY ENTREPRE- NEURIAL ENTERPRISES TABLE 5.4 1986 EMPLOYMENT (AND SHARE) ACCOUNTED FOR BY ENTREPRENEURIAL ENTERPRISES TABLE 5.5 REGRESSION RESULTS FOR THE SHARES OF 1986 EMPLOYMENT AND FIRMS EMANATING FROM ENTERPRISES FOUNDED SINCE 1980 TABLE 5.6 
992 |a REGRESSION RESULTS FOR THE SHARES OF 1986 EMPLOYMENT AND FIRMS EMANATING FROM ENTERPRISES FOUNDED SINCE 1982 AND 1984 TABLE 6.1 U.S. INDUSTRIES WITH THE LARGEST MES, 1982 TABLE 6.2 JAPANESE INDUSTRIES WITH THE LARGEST MES, 1982 TABLE 6.3 MEAN MES IN U.S. AND JAPANESE MANUFACTURING SECTORS, 1982 TABLE 6.4 PRODUCTIVITY ($) IN OPTIMAL AND SUBOPTIMAL PLANTS FOR U.S. AND JAPANESE MANUFACTURING SECTORS, 1982 TABLE 6.5 EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION($) IN OPTIMAL AND SUBOPTIMAL PLANTS FOR U.S. AND JAPANESE MANUFACTURING SECTORS, 1982 TABLES XI TABLE 6.6 REGRESSION RESULTS FOR U.S. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SUBOPTIMAL AND OPTIMAL PLANT SIZE TABLE 6.7 REGRESSION RESULTS FOR JAPANESE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SUBOPTI- MAL AND OPTIMAL PLANT SIZE TABLE 7.1 CHANGE IN NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS BY SIZE OF FIRMS (THOU- SANDS), 1980-1986 TABLE 7.2 AGE COHORT (YEARS) OF EXITING ESTABLISHMENTS TABLE 7.3 AGE COHORT (YEARS) OF EXITING ESTABLISHMENTS ACCORDING TO IN- DUSTRIAL SECTOR TABLE 7.4 LOGIT REGRESSION RESULTS FOR SHARE OF EXITING ESTABLISHMENTS ACCOUNTED FOR BY AGE COHORT TABLE 8.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS FIGURES FIGURE 4.1 SURVIVAL RATES FOR NEW ESTABLISHMENTS FIGURE 4.2 HAZARD RATES FOR NEW ESTABLISHMENTS FIGURE 6.1 SUBOPTIMAL PLANT SIZE AND COMPENSATING FACTOR DIFFERENTIALS FIGURE 7.1 PATHS IN THE NUMBER OF ENTRIES, EXITS, AND FIRMS 

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