Environmental policy and technical change: a comparison of the technological impact of policy instruments

This work assesses the impact of environmental policy on technical change in the development of clean technologies. It focuses on the possibility of inducing radical change in technology policy, in contrast to the current regulatory practices which lead to the modification of existing practices.This... Ausführliche Beschreibung

1. Person: Kemp, René
Format: Buch
Sprache: English
Veröffentlicht: Cheltenham, UK [u.a.] Elgar 1997
Beschreibung: XVIII, 360 S. : graph. Darst.
Serien: New horizons in environmental economics
Schlagworte (SH): Environmental policy > Economic aspects
Pollution control industry > Technological innovations
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Anmerkung: Literaturverz. S. 329-348
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520 |a This work assesses the impact of environmental policy on technical change in the development of clean technologies. It focuses on the possibility of inducing radical change in technology policy, in contrast to the current regulatory practices which lead to the modification of existing practices.This work assesses the impact of environmental policy on technical change in the development of clean technologies. It focuses in particular on the possibility of inducing radical change in technology policy, in contrast to the current regulatory practices which lead to the modification of existing products. The book sheds light on the relationship between clean technology and environmental policy. It adopts an approach which combines a balance of both theoretical models of innovation and diffusion with empirical case studies. Dr Kemp examines policies such as subsidies, tradeable quotas, pollution taxes and emission standards, which are generally linked to economic incentives in order to encourage the most efficient response in meeting environmental goals. He explores how public policy may be used to reduce the use of traditional fossil fuels. 
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992 |a IMAGE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND TECHNICAL CHANGE A COMPARISON OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL IMPACT OF POLICY INSTRUMENTS RENE KEMP MERYT, MAASTRICHT UNIVERSITY, THE NETHERLANDS NEW HORIZONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS EDWARD ELGAR CHELTENHAM, UK * BROOKFIELD, US IMAGE 2 CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES XI LIST OF TABLES XIV ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS XVII 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 PROBLEM AND RESEARCH METHODS 2 1.2 OUTLINE 5 1.3 TECHNOLOGY DEFINITIONS 7 PART I: THEORETICAL MODELS OF INNOVATION AND DIFFUSION 17 2. A CRITICAL SURVEY OF INNOVATION MODELS IN POLLUTION CONTROL 19 2.1 MODELS OF INNOVATION IN POLLUTION CONTROL 20 2.2 A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE INNOVATION MODELS 39 2.3 CONCLUSIONS 49 3. NEW MODELS OF INNOVATION IN POLLUTION CONTROL 50 3.1 A PERFECT INFORMATION MODEL OF R&D IN POLLUTION CONTROL 51 3.2 A MODEL OF REGULATOR BEHAVIOUR AND INNOVATION IN POLLUTION CONTROL 57 3.3 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 66 APPENDIX 3.A: CONVEXITY OF FUNCTION C(ER,RD) 68 APPENDIX 3.B: THE RANKING OF RD AND ER 69 4. AN INTERPRETATIVE SURVEY OF TECHNOLOGICAL DIFFUSION MODELS 70 4.1 INTRODUCTION 70 4.2 THE EPIDEMIC DIFFUSION MODEL 71 4.3 THE RATIONAL CHOICE MODELS OF TECHNOLOGICAL DIFFUSION 79 4.4 A COMPARISON OF TECHNOLOGICAL DIFFUSION MODELS 85 VLL IMAGE 3 VIII CONTENTS 5. THE DIFFUSION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY BENEFICIAL TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS 95 5.1 THE ADOPTION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY BENEFICIAL TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS 95 5.2 TWO DIFFUSION STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENT-SAVING TECHNOLOG- ICAL INNOVATIONS 104 5.3 A SIMPLE THRESHOLD MODEL OF THE ADOPTION OF ENVIRONMEN- TAL TECHNOLOGIES 115 5.4 THE DIFFUSION EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT POLICY INSTRUMENTS 124 PART II: EMPIRICAL STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTALLY BENEFICIAL TECHNOLOGIES 131 6. THE DIFFUSION OF BIOLOGICAL WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE DUTCH FOOD AND BEVERAGE INDUSTRY 133 6.1 WASTE-WATER POLICY IN THE NETHERLANDS 133 6.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE THRESHOLD MODEL 138 6.3 EMPIRICAL RESULTS FROM THE THRESHOLD MODEL 147 6.4 MODEL RESULTS FROM THREE EPIDEMIC MODELS 167 
992 |a 6.5 CONCLUSIONS 172 APPENDIX 6.A: EFFLUENT TAX RATES IN THE NETHERLANDS 174 APPENDIX 6.B: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF EFFLUENT TAX RATES IN 1981 AND 1987 176 APPENDIX 6.C: EFFLUENT TREATMENT COSTS 177 APPENDIX 6.D: THE DIFFUSION OF BIOLOGICAL WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS 178 7. THE DIFFUSION OF THERMAL HOME INSULATION IN THE NETHERLANDS 179 7.1 THE THRESHOLD MODEL FOR THERMAL HOME INSULATION 182 7.2 EMPIRICAL RESULTS FROM THE THRESHOLD MODEL 186 7.3 EMPIRICAL RESULTS FROM THREE EPIDEMIC MODELS 195 7.4 CONCLUSIONS 207 APPENDIX 7.A: A THRESHOLD DIFFUSION MODEL WITH DIFFERING RENTABILITY REQUIREMENTS 215 APPENDIX 7.B: DESCRIPTION OF THE DATA 216 8. CASE STUDIES OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES 220 8.1. THE DECISION TO DEVELOP AND ADOPT CLEANER TECHNOLOGY 220 8.2 EMPIRICAL RESULTS FROM THREE CASE STUDIES 225 8.3 CONCLUSIONS 239 IMAGE 4 CONTENTS IX 9. TECHNOLOGY EFFECTS OF PAST ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES: AN OVERVIEW 242 9.1 TECHNOLOGY RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS 242 9.2 DO ECONOMIC INCENTIVES PROVIDE A GREATER SPUR TO ENVIRON- MENT-SAVING TECHNICAL CHANGE? 249 9.3 US EXPERIENCES WITH INNOVATION WAIVERS 254 9.4 THE NON-EFFECTIVENESS OF SUBSIDIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES 255 9.5 EXPERIENCES WITH THE USE OF COVENANTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 258 PART FFL: THE PROBLEM OF TECHNOLOGICAL REGIME SHIFTS 261 10. CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN TECHNOLOGICAL REGIMES 263 10.1 PATTERNS IN THE EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGY 264 10.2 THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DIMENSION IN THE STABILITY OF TECHNO- LOGICAL REGIMES 268 10.3 CONCLUSION 277 11. UNDERSTANDING TECHNOLOGICAL REGIME SHIFTS 279 11.1 DETERMINANTS OF RADICAL TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE 279 11.2 COMPETING DESIGNS 282 11.3 THE SHIFT INTO A NEW TECHNOLOGICAL REGIME 285 11.4 FIRM BEHAVIOUR AND TECHNOLOGICAL REGIME SHIFTS 286 11.5 CONCLUSIONS 289 12. THE TRANSITION FROM HYDROCARBONS 290 12.1 GREENHOUSE WARMING AND ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 291 12.2 THE NEED FOR AN EVOLUTIONARY MODEL OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE 292 
992 |a 12.3 TECHNOLOGICAL PATHWAYS TO A MORE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SYSTEM 297 12.4 DEFINING ENERGY TECHNOLOGY POLICIES 298 12.5 STRATEGIC NICHE MANAGEMENT 307 12.6 CONCLUSIONS 311 13. CONCLUSIONS 313 13.1 INNOVATION EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES 313 13.2 TECHNOLOGICAL DIFFUSION EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES 315 13.3 BEST POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO FOSTER ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOL- OGIES 317 13.4 THE PROBLEM OF TECHNOLOGICAL REGIME SHIFTS 326 IMAGE 5 CONTENTS REFERENCES INDEX 329 349 

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